BABBA issue # 12 - February 1994, page 12

New Modem Technologies (Including V.34)

(By Ken Krechmer)

The ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication) is the international agency (previously known as the CCITT) that sets international standards for telephone and wide area communications. Committees (study groups) perform the work of the agency. Work in progress is known as a draft recommendation. (In this article, the word recommendation describes official ITU-T proposed standards.)

Since 1991, the ITU-T Study Group 14 (previously SG XVII) has worked to develop a recommendation for duplex modems operating over 14,400 bit/s termed V.34. The US supports this effort through the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) TR-30.1 committee.

ITU-T SG14 standards are labeled with numbers starting with "V." (pronounced vee dot). When a major amendment is made to a standard, the suffix "bis" may be added to the label. The "bis" suffix is taken from the French language word for second.

The November 1993 V.34 draft Recommendation defined data rates from 2400 bits/second to 28,800 bit/s. Draft V.34 employs a variety of new (not currently used) modem recommendations to maximize the modem's performance over normal telephone channels. In the future, V.34 Recommendations may be expanded to include data rates up to 32 kilobits per second (kbit/s).

Modem Technology Definitions
More V.34 details
A V.34 modem negotiates in 4 phases:
  1. Network interaction (V.8 calling menu/answer menu)
  2. Probing (V.34 independent training)
  3. Training (V.34 echo canceller and equalizer training)
  4. Final training (V.34 final connection sequence)

V.34 Symbol rates/carrier frequencies:

Symbol Rate V.34 usage Low Carrier High Carrier
2400 required 1600 1800
2743 optional 1646 1829
2800 optional 1680 1867
3000 required 1800 2000
3200 required 1829 1920
3429 optional 1959 1959

V.34 Modem Capabilities:

V.34 Technologies Include:

V.8 Handshaking
When one modem dials up another, the process that the two modems go through to determine which modulation (V.32, V.22bis, Bell 212, etc.) to utilize is loosely termed handshaking.

Current modems automatically select among 6 or more modulation types. V.32bis includes Annex A as one of the specifications that defines the procedures for automatic interworking between V.22, V.22bis, and V.32 modems. V.32 and V.32bis use the same negotiation process, so their automatic interworking is already defined. However, the interworking defined in Annex A is based on the characteristic tones of each modulation start-up sequence. Detecting tones is time consuming and not a very extensible procedure.

V.34 modems will include parts of new recommendation being developed - V.8 (previously V.8 describes a faster way for two V.34 compliant modems to handshake. One of the goals of the V.8 recommendation is to complete the entire startup handshake sequence within 5 seconds. A typical V.32/V.32bis startup sequence requires about 16 seconds.

V.34 modems will connect to each other at least 10 seconds faster than existing V.32bis modems. Both V.34 and V.32bis modems require a few additional seconds to negotiate error-correction and data compression protocols.

V.8 Negotiations
Prior to the actual V.34 negotiation, the V.8 negotiation (using modulated calling and answering tones) will transfer information about the two modems functional capabilities. First a data sequence (using V.21 low band modulation) termed the Calling Menu (CM) is sent from the originating V.34 modem to the answering V.34 modem. This describes the range of functional capabilities supported in the originating modem.

Then, the answering V.34 modem responds to the CM with a Joint Menu (using V.21 high band modulation) indicating the common capabilities of the modems at each end. Finally, after the joint capabilities are determined, a probing signal is passed between the modems to identify the impairments present in the telephone channel. With the results of the probing signal(s) the modem receivers and transmitters (in each direction) will train-up, utilizing the modulation techniques requested in the CM/JM exchange.

Digital interface issues
The high data rates proposed for V.34 will prove a challenge to more than just the telephone circuits. The widely used EIA/TIA-232 (RS232) serial interface is specified to operate up to 20 kbit/s, although many implementations use it at higher data rates by supporting a lower magnitude voltage swing.

The personal computers of Apple, IBM, and compatibles, use EIA/TIA-232 compatible semiconductors (typically UARTs) with character-oriented communications software that does not provide reliable operation at data rates above 20,000 bit/s. In order for V.34 modems to be reliably utilized, a new approach to the digital interface to the computer will be required. Possible solutions include:

1. Use EIA/TIA 530A (specified in V.34). Backward compatible to EIA/TIA-232, it supports data rates to 2.1 Megabits per second (mbit/s).

This approach is a candidate for high speed serial communications interfaces on communications equipment such as front end processors, T1 multiplexers, routers, and similar communications equipment. It can also be adapted to support some "V.35" interfaces. Users should be cautious as many "V.35" implementations do not support the control signaling (DTR and DSR) to provide good switched network operation.

2. Use the electrical characteristics of V.10 (also specified in V.34). V.10 supports data rates up to 100 kbit/s and is electrically compatible with TIA 232. This familiar approach is the easiest for the user, but potentially the most problematic as well. PC serial ports already have problems supporting data rates over 20 kbit/s.

3. Use the IEEE 1284 standard for the bidirectional parallel port. This has a large installed base in personal computers but is somewhat dependent on the manufacturer for proper implementation. Xircom and Microcom modems provide this interface.

4. Connect directly to the PC via the PCMCIA interface. There are a large number of PCMCIA V.32 modems currently available.

5. Connect directly to the PC AT bus via a proprietary card. This solution is endorsed by Hayes, Codex, and others.

Approaches 4 and 5 support existing and emerging interfaces available on most personal computers. It is likely that manufacturers will need to provide at least approaches 1, 2, and 5 in the near term, and 4 when it is practical to fit the V.34 technology in a PCMCIA form factor.

All of the examples, except #2, require new software drivers to support the new physical interfaces. This is desirable as the new drivers can be designed to support more efficient communications with the host system rather than supporting character based communications.

Proprietary High Data Rate Modems
Two different types of high data rate modems currently dominate the field:

1) Proprietary implementations that offer higher data rates and allow for upgrading to V.34 when it is complete. Unless you upgrade them, these modems will only be able to connect at speeds up to 14.4, and to other same-make modem models.

2) High data rate extensions to V.32bis, such as V.32terbo. Because these are simple enhancements to an existing modem specification, they will remain low cost, high data rate alternatives.

Type 1 - Proprietary implementations. Codex, a division of Motorola, announced a proprietary "326XFast" in April 1992 for $1395.00. This product operates at 24,000 bps and uses Codex proprietary implementations of several of the possible techniques proposed for V.34. Codex has promised US purchasers a kit for the customer to upgrade 326XFast to support V.34 compatible operation up to 24 kbit/s, when the recommendation is complete.

The success of this product forced other vendors to create alternatives prior to the completion of the V.34 recommendation. Penril Datability Corp., Racal Data Communications, Hayes, and General DataComm, have announced proprietary high data rate dialup modem implementations in competition with the Codex 326XFast.

In late 1993, Rockwell announced a chip set implementation of their version of operating at data rates up to 28.8 kbit/s, which they termed V.Fast Class (V.FC). This implementation, supported by multiple manufacturers, does not use the V.8 handshaking mechanism. Therefore it cannot be compatible, without software or PROM modification, with the future V.34 standard.

Each of the proprietary implementations of offers the user higher data rates in advance of V.34 and probably requires (for future compatibility) that the user upgrade these implementations to V.34 when it becomes available.

Type 2 - High data rate extensions to V.32 bis. A group of vendors led by AT&T proposed in September 1992 to a CCITT SG XVII Rapporteurs meeting, a simple extension to the existing V.32bis technology that maintained the same symbol rate (2400) and added two new constellations of 256 points and 512 points to support data rates of 16,800 and 19,200 bps respectively. The Rapporteurs group, not wishing to lose focus on, did not accept this proposal. Subsequently, AT&T has termed this technology V.32terbo.

Since constellations with a large number of points are very sensitive to distortion, AT&T also proposed a novel technique termed nonlinear encoding (one of the optional techniques included in V.34) to improve performance when such large constellations are used. Nonlinear encoding does not require additional processor resources in the modem. The AT&T proposal utilizes the existing V.32/V.32bis negotiation procedure by implementing two unused states to signify 16,800 or 19,200 bps operation. This reduces compatibility problems with the installed base of V.32 and V.32bis modems. Since the symbol rate (2400) remains the same, it typically does not require a faster processor to implement. For these reasons V.32terbo will continue to be a low cost add-on to existing V.32bis products.

V.34 Facsimile
One of the largest applications for the V.34 technology is a higher data rate for G3 facsimile. Currently, the highest data rate supported in the G3 recommendations is 14,400 bps, utilizing the V.17 recommendation.

Study Group 8, which approves the G3 facsimile recommendations, is considering implementing a half duplex V.34 to reduce the complexity and costs of a facsimile modem. In addition, it is possible that a lower data rate full duplex modem (possibly V.22 [1200 bps] or V.22bis [2400 bps]) could be used for the lower data rate negotiation phases of a facsimile connection. Currently, the low data rate negotiation phase (T.30) is accomplished using V.21 (300 bps half duplex).

Based on the current SG 8 schedules, extensions to G3 to include V.34 could be introduced before the end of 1994. However, completion of G3 recommendations would not occur until 1995 at the earliest.

Soon - Formal Approval of V.34?
An agreement was reached at the ITU-T Study Group 14 Working Party meeting in September 93 to proceed with Resolution 1 procedures at the June 1994 SG 14 meeting. At the December 93 Rapporteurs meeting, agreements were completed covering all the significant technical points. Over the holidays, edited drafts of the recommendation were completed. The February 1994 Rapporteurs meeting will address any final changes to the recommendation required by problems unearthed during testing.

With the recommendation technically completed, it will be presented to the June 1994 SG 14 meeting for approval. When approved there (which is very likely, but there may be some technical changes that occur), it will be presented to the ITU membership for final approval (normally this does not cause any changes). Current plans call for V.8 to separately follow same approval path.

The complexity of V.34 and the suite of optional modulation techniques will exacerbate the normally difficult task of assuring compatible operation between different manufacturer's implementations.

Users should expect an even longer period from first implementations to multi-vendor interworking than has occurred in the past. In the author's experience, past multi-vendor modem interworking issues have been resolved over a 6 to 12 month period after first production shipments commence. Integration of V.34 into existing communications systems will pose new problems (and opportunities) because of the need to utilize different interfaces to support higher data rate communications. V.34 will be a remarkable technical achievement reaching near the highest possible data rate of a telephone line. But V.34 will not be "V.last".

The need to create new ways to use the ubiquitous, and still expanding, worldwide digital telephone network with analog interfaces, will continue to drive new modem requirements for the foreseeable future. In fact, the V.34 Rapporteurs group have already noted enhancements that they do not have the time to consider. They suggest that such enhancements could be implemented in "V.34bis"!

Has the marketplace made itself heard over the din of proprietary interests in V.34 standards meetings? We should know shortly.

Ken Krechmer has been the principal in ACTION Consulting, Palo Alto, CA for over 13 years.
ACTION Consulting ( assists in the development of new WAN communications products by identifying and specifying emerging feature requirements and new market/technology segments. Krechmer participates in ITU-T Study Group 14 (data communications over the PSTN), Study Group 15 (ISDN), Study Group 8 (facsimile and telematic services); also TIA TR-30 (data communications), TR-29 (facsimile), TR-45, (cellular), TR-46 (PCS), TR-41 (digital DCE), and ATIS T1 committees. He is the technical editor of Communications Standards Review (Palo Alto, Ca.), the only technical journal reporting on standards work in progress in TIA and ITU-T. Clients include major communications equipment suppliers and carriers worldwide.

Page 12 had ads for Fun University Network (, and Lincoln's Cabin BBS.

Page 13 had a full-page ad for Mustang Software (

Page 14 had ads for Floreat (, the Pacific Exchange BBS, and DC to Light.

Page 15 had a full-page ad for Clark Development Company.

Page 16 had ads for Tiger Team and Hyperworks.

Page 17 had ads for Slaygor's Domain, Terminal One, Weasel Den 2, and the Black Rose BBSs.

BBS Software of the Month - PCBoard

(By Mauricio Pineda)

In recent years, BBS packages were limited to what the package author thought would be nice features to have. Most Sysops wanted just a little bit more. Although some Sysops don't mind running BBS software right out of the package, there are a few of us who feel it is important to have a BBS that looks and feel different than any other. To those of us, only changing a few menus, or just coloring prompts in different ways, limited what we could change on the software we were running.

The BBS world was changed forever when Clark Development Company, Inc. released version 15.0 of their PCBoard BBS software. Sysops now have the ability to not only change menus and prompts, but to have total control over what the PCBoard BBS software will do.

With version 15.0, CDC introduced their first version of their PCBoard Programming Language Compiler (PPLC), which adds endless capabilities to their already versatile software. The PPLC lets a Sysop write BBS modifications in a friendly "BASIC-like" language and then compile a PPE (PCBoard Programming Executable). The PPE becomes an extension to the PCB BBS program itself.

Long Overdue
A product like the PPLC has been long overdue in the BBS community. Although BBS doors sometimes achieved the desired results, doors often have hardware and software compatibility problems on complex BBS systems. The PPLC gives you the flexibility you have been looking for in BBS software all along. You can change a simple "Yes" to a "No", modify the way a new user logs on, create a callback security system, or even change the way BBS commands are processed.

PPL source code commands resemble the BASIC programming language. The PPLC itself was written in C++. Because the extensions you create are integrated with PCBoard, it gives you the assurance that if your BBS runs, whatever program you write will run. The PPLC handles all the overhead of a BBS application, including all communication routines. All you will need to worry about is writing, reading, and processing your BBS files.

The only real limitation you will have with PPL will be your imagination. Although you cannot write a complete BBS package, due to a 30.7k limit in PPE size, you could write different modules to interface the existing PCBoard with your PPEs. You could write modules for messages, the file area, and the main board module to process all the BBS commands as you see fit.

PPE Examples:
Flagging Files: Flagging files (marking them to download later) on a PCBoard BBS is no longer a hassle. As long as you have a spacebar and an enter key you can flag files in PCBoard 15.0. Of course if you are using RIP script and PCB 15.1, it's even easier with full mouse support for the flagging and viewing of files.

The flag PPE is an example of the power of the PPLC. FLAG.PPE came to exist as a dare to David Terry (PCBoard GURU). At One BBSCON (a national Sysop conference), David was dared to come up with a way to flag files for downloading that would be better than any other BBS software's method. What he came up with was a way for users to flag files using nothing but the space bar and the enter key. Which needless to say, is one of the best ways of flagging files on any BBS software.

Rotating Screens: A Sysop can use a PPE to toggle the display screens the callers see each time they call. You could set up your BBS so that if a caller calls three times in a row they would get one screen that says "Auto-Sensing ANSI/RIP," and the next time it would say "ANSI & RIP detection process", and so on. By using a PPE, you avoid the need for an external third-party program that can slow down the login process, and might not work on your particular system configuration.

Although most BBS packages have built in automatic ANSI/RIP detection, PCBoard, PPLC, and a little imagination allow you to not only automatically sense ANSI and RIP, but allow you to display an unlimited number of different screens once detection has been achieved.

Easy Message Access
PCBoard 15.0 introduced the use of .MNU files that allow you to break down the main menu into however many menus you wish to have. Instead of having all commands available from one menu, you have the choice of creating a different menu for all the different options you'd like to have. For example, you can now make an improved "messages" menu.

PCBoard has so many message reading options that it is hard for a Sysop to figure out which options to put on the main menu. Now you can have just one option on the main menu and create an entire sub-menu that includes every option for reading messages. Besides processing regular PCBoard commands, .MNUs can also "redirect" commands to perform other options.

As an example, if you wanted the user to be able to "Read mail in All conferences since last login", you could create a simple (S)ince command to do a 'R;A' for your users. Another example would be the "Read Your mail Since last logon" which could be interpreted as 'R;Y;S' command which would alleviate the user from having to read messages addressed to all other users, by just using a (M)y mail command.

Custom Made Features
Mail order houses, technical support departments, information services, and others, can combine PPEs and .MNU files to customize and/or simplify PCBoard to fit any sort of need. The possibilities are endless. With PCBoard, PPLC, and a little programming knowledge you can create any type of online environment.

Version 15.1
After releasing 15.0, the guys at CDC could not just leave 'well enough' alone. PCBoard version 15.1 (now in wide-area beta test) has more than 40 improvements and additions, ranging from full OS/2 support to faster processing of "Generic Messages". Generic messages are those addressed with the "@user@" macro, which personalizes messages to the reader. The @user@ macro processing includes the setting of mail-waiting flags for all the users in the database. Generic messages are used to relay important information in a personally addressed manner.

PPLC Improvements
Version 15.1 of PCBoard brought along version 2.0 PPLC, which has more than 90 new commands. The PPLC has been improved to make writing a PPE less work by reducing the number of commands. As a bonus, the PPEs are now smaller, causing the produced PPEs to execute faster.

Is Installation Hard?
Can you type "INSTALL"? Although PC-Board has hundreds of definable options, installation is as easy as typing "install" from the command prompt. The program walks you through the installation with ease. The majority of options have built-in help that can be accessed by hitting the F1 key. PCBoard comes with a great Sysop manual that explains everything. If you get stuck, help is available from their competent and courteous customer support staff.

Compatible and Expandable
PCBoard works with multiport serial cards and LANs. My 9 node BBS uses PCBoard 15.1 /M, DesqView, an 8-port DigiBoard, and runs on a 486DX2/66 machine with 8 Megabytes of RAM and Lantastic. A second 486/33 runs the only 'real' COM port in my setup. With version 15.1, PCBoard now has complete support for multi-port OS/2 platforms.

BBSs have grown in popularity in the past few years, and as America becomes an online country, we find ourselves with many more BBSs popping up daily. Sysops who consider BBSing more of a challenge than a hobby have been given the perfect tool to express themselves and make their BBSs a caller's delight.

My experience in programming is limited. In spite of that, I have been able to write a few different PPEs that make my board different from any other board. I have found PPLC very easy to work with. This shows that even those of us who are somewhat limited in programming knowledge can still take advantage of such a feature. My hat is off to Clark Development Company, Inc.

Page 18 had ads for The Fox_Hole, The Party Wherehouse, INFormation Exchange, The Tripwire, and the Night Watch BBSs.

Channel 36's Wireless Network

Action 36, KICU TV (, is the Bay Area's first (and largest) broadcaster of public high-speed wireless data broadcasts. Thousands of Bay Area computer users are already connected.

Besides the regular TV audio and video signals, Action 36 broadcasts data that can be captured with the ITC TeleText decoder card. As with other television broadcasts, most of the high-speed wireless data broadcasts are free to the public, paid for by advertisers.

International TeleText Communications, Inc. (ITC) designs and manufactures the equipment to encode, insert, and decode data into TV video signals. Data is multiplexed into TV 36's signal at 48,000 baud. ITC's TeleText Decoder card can handle data transmissions at rates between 14K and 114K baud. The card is a single (8 bit) PC card that automatically detects and adjusts to the data rate of the broadcast station.

The Technology
The broadcasted data is called TeleText. (Unrelated to the old TV set type of TeleText used in England.) This data is compressed, encoded and multiplexed into a high speed data stream for computers.

TeleText resides in the part of the TV picture called the Vertical Blanking Interval (VBI). VBI is that black line you see when the TV picture rolls up and down the screen. Your TV set uses the VBI as a synchronization signal to hold the picture and keep it from rolling. You can see the millions of tiny white dots in the VBI line by adjusting the vertical hold on your TV set. As digital chip technology became faster and cheaper, inserting and decoding data within this vacant TV bandwidth made ITC's technology a cost effective wireless solution. Today, ITC's consumer TeleText decoder card is sold in Bay Area stores for under $200.

The Benefits
Wireless data transmission enables millions to connect simultaneously to a data feed without ever getting a busy signal. Broadcasting "common databases" of information makes them more accessible. Individual information requests needn't be in the form of repeated requests to a "common information database". The solution is in broadcasting data, as it happens, when it changes. Everyone (within transmission range) receives it at the same time, at the speed of light.

Skyway versus the Highway
While everyone is talking about the information highway of the future, ITC has been busy building the data flight paths for the information skyway. Already, ITC has a network of two satellite feeds that distribute data over TV stations in Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Jersey, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco and Tampa.

ITC's wireless data network transmits USA Today Decisionline news, originating from Gannett Publishing. Also broadcasted are (15 minute delayed) complete NYSE, AMEX, and NASDAQ stock market quotes.

The TeleText decoder card comes with software to give you full access to these ad-supported data broadcasts, 24 hours a day. The software is DOS-based and can capture data in the background, under both OS/2 and Windows. Demo versions of the ITC software are free downloads from the ITC support BBS.

Page 19 had ads for Just Computers! (; and the Party Line ( and Body Images BBSs.

BBS of the Month: The Travel Connection!

(By George Ouzts)

Last year, I was planning a trip to London via Paris with some friends. Like many people needing information, I sought out a travel bookstore. I spent at least an hour browsing through travel books, examining maps, and trying to learn as much as possible about my destinations. I ended up spending over $50 on various travel books and maps before I got out of the store. What I really wanted, was just to talk with someone who had been there recently - someone who could recommend restaurants, hotels, or give me some tips about getting around.

When I returned from my trip, I had information that others, like myself, would benefit from. That's when I decided to create a BBS system dedicated to that purpose. I believe that BBS systems like the Travel Connection! can provide a valuable supplemental information source for travelers. Not affiliated with any travel agency, the Travel Connection! is the "back roads" of information for the independent traveler.

Travel Conferences
The Travel Connection! has many forums for exchanging information. The forums, or conferences, provide a way for people to share their travel experiences. The conferences have information from the US State Department, such as visa/passport requirements, customs, and travel warnings. This additional information can be accessed through bulletin menus, local to each conference. Bulletins for each of the countries indicate if additional information, such as accommodations and recreational activities, are available from local tourist offices. We also have information on airline fares, weather, and currency exchange rates.

Travel Partners
Travel Partners provides a way for people to link up for travel. Maybe you are looking to share a ride with someone to L.A., or want to find a group going to India. From this conference, you could start a travel group (rates for many activities are less expensive if you can organize a group) or find someone who has similar travel interests.

Trader Board
Subscribers can use our Trader Board to advertise vacation rentals, airline tickets or any other items and gear. Maybe you have a vacation condo, timeshare, or English cottage to rent. As anyone who has traveled in a foreign country knows, finding a good place to stay can be a crap shoot. The Trader Board is a great place to advertise your property or take advantage of accommodation offered by our subscribers. Although only subscribers can post ads, everyone can read them.

Travel Photo Library
A vacation rental usually sells better if someone can see it before renting it. Electronic photos can be a fun way to share your vacation with other subscribers. Our photo library provides 24-bit color GIF photos of such places as England, the Southwest, and British Columbia, to download and view on your computer. A sample of these photos and the software to view them are available for free downloading, after completing the registration questionnaire. Subscribers can contribute their own photos by mail. The Travel Connection! will convert the photos to GIF format for downloading by other Travel Connection subscribers. Photos can also be attached to ads on the Trader Board.

Travel Software
The Travel Connection! is the place to find travel-related software programs than can assist you in your travel planning. Current offerings include programs that will calculate the distance between locations, tell you the time around the world, or help you get over jet lag. You will also find free utilities which to decompress and/or view files (GIFs) after they have been downloaded.

Online Directories
Users can access a number of online travel information directories. The directories are data bases of airline, hotel, car rental phone numbers, tourist office locations, and bed & breakfast information. Subscribers can contribute to the content of these data bases by leaving messages to the Sysop.

Getting Around
The main menu functions are labeled on the side of a box or piece of luggage as it travels through the airport security checkpoint. Whether your "luggage" is a box or suitcase depends on your subscription status. Each of the other menus display graphics appropriate for the function. For example, the file menu portrays a filing cabinet while the message menu displays a colorful mailbox.

Subscription Levels
Accessing the BBS is easy and can be accomplished using any ANSI compatible communication program. When you first sign on, you are a "New User" and have limited access to the system until you complete the online registration questionnaire, after which your access level is upgraded to "Coach".

"Coach" users can download some files, read messages in all conferences, send and receive private email, and access State Department travel information. Subscribers can advertise on the Trader Board, submit and download files from the Travel Photo Library, and access tourist information. Subscribers also have full file downloading capabilities. Various subscriber rates exist from "Ambassador" to "World Traveler".

About the System
The Travel Connection! just came online in January 1994. It uses the Wildcat! BBS software on a 486/DX2 66 Mhz PC with a 500 Mbyte hard drive. Future enhancements will include CD-ROM, multi-line chat capability, and more disk space. Current communication links are through a single 14.4K baud modem.

From talking with other travelers, I believe The Travel Connection! will provide a valuable service for the independent travelers. A number of conferences are available for San Francisco, the Bay Area, and elsewhere in California. If you have a favorite local restaurant or getaway spot, share it with everyone through the Travel Connection!

Page 20 had an ad for the San Lorenzo User Group.

Pages 21 though 28 had detailed listings of Bay Area BBSs.

Page 24 had ads for UNIROM (, Atlas BBS/Internet Service (, and the UFO BBS.

Page 29 had a full-page ad for PC-TEN

Page 30 (back cover) had a full-page ad for TeleText Communications.

End of Issue 12. Go back, or to Issue 13, or to Mark's home page.